Zhong Yun, Xu Zhiguang, Zhang Weiguang, Yin Xia, Tan Minyu
School of Basic Sciences, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013; School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China)
Abstract:Theoretical studies on zinc complexes with dithiocarbamate Zn(SCNBz，Zn(SCNBzPy (Bz = benzyl, Py = pyridine) have been performed by density function theory at B3LYP/6-31G* level, and their IR spectra have been calculated and analyzed exactly. According to the change of energies of frontier molecular orbitals, charge distributing, components of HOMO orbital , IR spectra and other related data, it was found that by adding nitric heterocycle it would reduce the stability and symmetry of these complexes, especially weakened S-Zn bond, which had been interpreted by charge transfer, change of orbital energies and bond valence sum analysis.
Dithiocarbamate is a kind of common ligand containing sulfur, which could form complexes with all kinds of transition metals, B,B metals and rare earth. For the wide application in extracting metal ions, lubricant industry and rubber vulcanization accelerant, these complexes have been more and more studied. What’s more, these compounds could be the precursors for / materialsand effective antidotes for cadmium poisoning
The structures of these compounds are various. As far as dithiocarbamate is concerned, it is easy to form dimmer, polymer with B,B metals, whose coordination number is 4 or 5[6,7]. However, the metal ions in those compounds have not been coordinative saturation, they could form adducts with ligands containing N, P, and the coordination number became 5 or 6. When nitric heterocycle were introduced, the coordination number , the difference among S-M bonds length and average S-M bond length were increasing; the symmetry and stability of complexes were decreasing; the differences of the chemical environment among sulfur atoms in ligands have been obvious; IR spectra became more complicated. In recent years, the researchers have more and more interests in studying the vibration of C-S, N-C and CSS frame.
There are many studies reported on dithiocarbamate complexes in experimental, but seldom in theory. In recent work, we have studied Zn(SCNBu by quantum chemistry method. In this paper, zinc complex with dibenzyldithiocarbamate Zn(SCNBz and adduct with pyridine Zn(SCNBzPy (Bz = benzyl, Py = pyridine) have been performed by density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G* level. Through contrasting between the energies of frontier molecular orbital, charge distribution and components of HOMO orbital, the authors found that after introduced pyridine, the molecular symmetry had been destroyed, and the Zn-S bond length became longer for the weakening of the ZnSCN conjugation. The pyridine in the molecular form had tendency to loose. The calculated IR spectra of complexes , which was similar to actual, have been interpreted.
1 EXPERIMENTAL AND CALCULATE METHOD
The complexes have been synthesized according to reference 10.
The X-ray crystal data was collected on an CCD area detector with graphite-monochromated Mo Kα radiation (= 0.071073nm) at 295(2)K, using the/2scan technique. All of the calculations were performed using the SHELXTL system of computer programs. The IR spectra were recorded on Perkin-Elmer l7300 FTIR spectrometer in 4000-400cm-1 region using KBr pellets.
1.2 Calculating method
Molecular structures are derived from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The vibrational frequency have been calculated by B3LYP/6-31G* level of density function theory. All the calculations were performed using the Gaussian03 programs package.
2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Complex is orthorhombic with space group Pbcn. Complex is triclinic with space group P-1. Fig 1 shows the molecular structure of complexes, and table1 shows the selected bond length and bond angle of complexes.
Complexes 1([Zn(SCNBz]) Complexes 2([Zn(SCNBzPy])
Fig.1 The structures of complexes 1 and 2
Table 1The selected bond length(nm) and bond angle(°)
|Zn(SCNBz||Zn1-S1 0.23343(8)||Zn1-S2 0.23636(8)||C1-S1 0.1730(3)||C1-S2 0.1726(3)|
|C1-N1 0.1329(3)||C9-N1 0.1473(3)||C2-N1 0.1479(3)|
|S1-C1-S2 117.45(15)||S1-C1-N1 121.30(19)||N1-C1-S2 121.26(19)|
|C1-N1-C9 122.4(2)||C1-N1-C2 122.8(2)||C2-N1-C9 114.9(2)|
|Zn(SCNBzPy||Zn1-N1 0.2044(4)||Zn1-S1 0.26183(15)||Zn1-S2 0.23662(15)|
|Zn1-S3 0.23644(14)||Zn1-S1 0.25371(14)||C6-S1 0.1713(5)|
|C6-S2 0.1705(5)||C21-S3 0.1716(5)||C21-S4 0.1712(5)|
|C6-N2 0.1340(6)||C14-N2 0.1449(8)||C7-N2 0.1471(8)|
|C21-N3 0.1334(6)||C29-N3 0.1473(6)||C22-N3 0.1475(6)|
|S1-C6-S2 118.8(3)||N2-C6-S2 121.2(4)||S1-C6-N2 120.0(4)|
|S3-C21-S4 118.2(3)||N3-C21-S4 121.4(3)||S3-C21-N3 120.3(4)|
|C7-N2-C14 115.7(5)||C7-N2-C6 121.5(5)||C6-N2-C14 123.0(5)|
|C29-N3-C22 114.3(3)||C21-N3-C22 123.8(4)||C29-N3-C21 121.7(4)|
2.1 The stability of complexes
Energies of frontier molecular orbital in complexes 1 and 2 were illustrated in Table 2. The energies of occupational molecular orbital of complexes are all negative, and HOMO energies of complexes are lower, -0.215a.u.(complex 1) and -0.177a.u.(complex 2). It demonstrated that the complexes 1 and 2 are too stable to lose electron. TheHOMO-LUMO(0.186a.u.) of complex is higher thanHOMO-LUMO(0.123a.u.) of complex , which indicated that the complex had higher reactivity than complex
Table 2 Energies of frontier molecular orbital in complexes 1 and 2 (a.u.)
2.2 Natural charges distribution of atoms in the complexes
Table 3 shows the natural charges distribution of atoms in the complexes. It is indicated from Table 3:
1. Obvious covalent character: The valence of Zn atoms in two complexes are both +2, but the natural charges of Zn atoms, all less than +1, are 0.481 and 0.564, respectively. It demonstrated that obvious covalent bond have been formed between Zn atom and ligand.
2. Natural charges distribution of SCNC motion in dithiocarbamate exhibits polarity alternation: Under the effect of polar atoms S, N, the natural charges distribution of SCNC motion in dithiocarbamate exhibits polarity alternation along (S,S)-C-N-(C,C). And, in complex 2, the C atoms in pyridine also exhibit polarity alternation along N1-C1-C2-C3-C4-C5.
3. Natural charges distribution incline to equilibration: The absolute values of all atoms’natural charges are below 1. It indicated that natural charges distribution of complexes incline to equilibration because it exhibits polarity alternation.
When pyridine was introduced, the natural charge of Zn atom has been more positive; natural charges of ligands(DTC) have been more negative; and natural charge of pyridine in complex was positive(see Table 3). It demonstrated that electrons had transferred from Zn to DTC; the covalent character of Zn-S has been decreased, and weakened; Zn-S bond length has been extended, meanwhile C-S has shortened and strengthened. That the natural charge of pyridine in complex is positive indicates that combination between pyridine and Zn is not so stable, and the pyridine in complex would lose under the circumstance. In addition, the introduced pyridine made the natural charges of S atoms in DTC different, which increased the asymmetry of DTC.
Table3Natural charges of some atoms or groups in complexes
|Complex 1||Zn1: 0.481, S1: -0.176, S2: -0.172, C1: -0.041,
N1:-0.363, C2: -0.230, C9: -0.183, DTC: -0.24
|Complex 2||Zn1: 0.564, S1: -0.274, S2: -0.186, C6: -0.025,
N2:-0.372, C7: -0.252, C14: -0.170, DTC: -0.392
S3: -0.186, S4: -0.258, C21: -0.028, N3:-0.350,
N1: -0.506, C1: 0.133, C2: -0.164, C3: -0.089,
2.3 The bond character in complexes
The square sums of all kinds of atom orbital coefficients have been added, and been normalized. The results are the contribution of atom orbital in HOMO orbital or components of HOMO orbital(see Table 4). Fig 2 shows HOMO orbital of complexes 1 and 2.
HOMO orbital of complexes are π bond which was composed of multitudinous(p) orbital of S and little(p) orbital of N, C(see Table 4). HOMO orbital of complex is a little distorted antibonding orbital, and its energy is -0.17701a.u.. HOMO orbital of complex is torsional antibonding orbital. Its energy(-0.21516 a.u.) is lower than complex because of partly overlapping between S atoms and Zn atom(see Fig 2).
The orbital population of HOMO orbital in complex is higher than complex , which imaged that the symmetry of complex was lower than complex . The(p) orbital of N, C of HOMO in complex is lower than complex , and(p) orbital of S of HOMO in complex is higher than complex . It indicated that the introduced pyridine had destroyed conjugate of ZnSCN, made electrons congregate on S atoms, which agreed with natural charges distribution. From crystal x-ray analysis, Zn-S,C-N bond length in complex is longer than complex , and S-C is shortened and strengthened.
Fig. 2 HOMO orbital of the complexes
Table4The components of HOMO orbital in complexes calculated by B3LYP
2.4 The effect of S-Zn by introducing nitric heterocycle
Bond Valence Sum Analysis (BVS) is applied to complexes of zinc and cadmium dithiocarb- amates to estimate the effective valences of the metal ions from the bond lengths reported from their crystal structures. The valence vij of a bond between two atoms i and j is defined so that the sum of all the valences from a given atom i with valence Vi obeys Vi = Vij, vij = exp[(Rij-dij)/B]. Here,‘B’is taken to be a universal constant equal to 0.37. dij is bond lengths. The parameter Rij (RZn-S=2.08, RZn-N= 1.77)is the bond valence parameter. The effective valence of metal atoms in dithiocarbamate complexes with zinc approach their formal oxidation states(+2), and the effective valence of metal atoms in parent dithiocarbamate complexes are greater than adducts. The effective valence of metal atoms in complex and complex are 1.94 and 1.92, respectively. It is accordance with this principle. According to the calculate method of the effective valence of metal atoms, we can predicate S-M bond would be extended in adducts because that the coordinate number was greater in adducts than in parent dithiocarbamate complexes, and the effective valence of metal atoms was lower in adducts than in parent dithiocarbamate complexes.
The steric effect of ligands containing N have more effect to S-Zn in complexes. Since N-Zn bond length is shorter than S-Zn bond length, the ligands containing N are more approach than dithiocarbamate. For the steric effect of ligands containing N, the conjugate of MSCN would be destroyed, and the coordinative circumstance of S atoms in ligands would be difference. It will extend S-Zn, and destroy primary dimmer, polymer structure(see Table 5). In xanthate complexes which is similar to dithiocarbamate complexes, this situations will be occurred. Adding pyridine and 1,10- phenanthroline(phen) to polymer [Cd(SCOC-n)(average S-Cd:0.2551nm) will acquire two monomers, [(Py)Cd(SCOC-n) (average S-Cd:0.2687nm) and [(phen)Cd(SCOC-n) (average S-Cd:0.2676nm), respectively.
Table 5Average S-Zn bond length in Zinc complexes with dithiocarbamate and their nitric heterocycle adducts (nm)
|Complexes||Coordination number||Average S-Zn bond length||Reference|
Table 6Mainly calculated and experimental IR vibration peak value of complex 1(cm-1
values in parentheses have been multiplied correction factor: 0.9613
Fig. 3The calculated and experimental IR spectra of complex 1
(The calculated frequency will be multiplied by correction factor: 0.9613)
2.5 IR spectra
Fig 3 illustrates the calculated and experimental IR spectra of complex . Table 6 shows the mainly calculated and experimental IR vibration peak value of complex . Fig 4 illustrates the calculated and experimental IR spectra of complex . Table 7 shows the mainly calculated and experimental IR vibration peak value of complex
From crystal x-ray analysis, it is known that complex has higher symmetry than complex . Two ligands in complex have little difference. The C-N vibration appears in 1549.1 (1489)cm-1 and 1544.64 (1485) cm-1(value in parentheses have been multiplied by correction factor: 0.9613), and the experimental value is 1489 cm-1 and 1485 cm-1. It demonstrates that C-N have double bond character, which is in accordance with existing reports. The vibration of appears in 1224.49 (1177)cm-1 and 1199 (1152) cm-1, and the experimental value is 1157 cm-1, which reveals obvious single bond character. It indicates that the electrons have only delocalized in SCN. The C-S vibration has little split, appears in 1027.5 (987.7)cm-1 and 1026.55 (986.8)cm-1, and experimental value is only one: 987.8cm-1. It indicates that the chemical circumstances of S atoms in ligands have little difference.
The symmetry of complex is lower. Two dithiocarbamate ligands have greater difference, and the IR spectra is more complicated. The C-N vibration appears three peaks, 1554.54 (1494) cm-1, 1531.68 (1472) cm-1, 1498.57 (1441) cm-1, and experimental value is 1494 cm-1, 1470 cm-1, 1450cm-1. In two SCNC frame of complex , the asymmetry of A ( C6-S1: 0.1713nm, C6-S2: 0.1705nm, C14-N2:0.1449nm, C7-N2:0.1471nm ) is higher than B ( C21-S3: 0.1716nm, C21-S4:0.1712nm, C22-N3:0.1475nm, C29-N3:0.1473nm ) and complex ( C1-S1: 0.1730nm, C1-S2:0.1726nm, C9-N1:0.1473m、C2-N10.1479 ). And the polarization of A( S1: -0.274, S2: -0.186, C6: -0.025, N2:-0.372, C7: -0.252, C14: -0.170) is also higher than B ( S3: -0.186, S4: -0.258, C21: -0.028, N3:-0.350, C22: -0.212, C29: -0.239) and complex (S1: -0.176, S2: -0.172, C1: -0.041, N1:-0.363, C2: -0.230, C9: -0.183). These higher asymmetry and polarization induce split in C-N vibration of A. The vibration also splits, which appears in 1330.39 (1279)cm-1 and 1221.49 (1174) cm-1, and experimental value is 1274cm-1 and 1158cm-1. It indicates that the electrons have greater delocalized area in A, which induces C14-N2 (0.1449nm) was closer than other three C-N (0.1471nm, 0.1475nm, 0.1473nm ) and splits the vibration.The C-S vibration has also three peaks, 1058.79 (1018) cm-1, 1040.01 (999.8)cm-1, 1025.42 (985.7)cm-1，and the experimental value is 1028 cm-1, 998cm-1, 985cm-1. It demonstrates that the chemical circumstances of S atoms are not the same. From crystal x-ray analysis data, the C-S bond length could be considered as three groups, 0.1716nm, 0.1705nm, 0.1712nm and 0.1713nm; from natural charges distribution, they could also be considered as three groups, -0.274-0.258-0.186.
Table 7Mainly calculated and experimental IR vibration peak value of complex 2(cm-1
valuse in parentheses have been multiplied by correction factor: 0.9613
Fig 4The calculated and experimental IR spectra of complex 2
(The calculated frequency will be multiplied by correction factor: 0.9613)
Introduced nitric hetercycle have increased the coordinate number of zinc complexes with dithiocarbamate, destroyed the conjugate of ZnSCN, weakened the Zn-S, extended Zn-S, C-N and strengthened C-S. The complexes are more stable because the occupational molecular orbital of complexes are all negative and lower. It indicates that zinc complexes with dithiocarbamate could react with nitric heterocycle to form adducts. In complex , the introduced pyridine has destroyed the symmetry of complex, increased the asymmetry and polarization of SCNC in ligands, induced greater difference among S atoms. The IR spectra of complex is more complicated, and the vibrations of C-NC-S and have all split.